|Vines are guyot trained with plant density at 4,600 plants/ha. Following hand harvest in mid-October, grapes are de-stemmed and crushed. The crushed grapes are warmed to around 89-91°F, and the process of pumping the juice over the cap of skins begins immediately. This takes place very frequently over the first 3 days in order to extract an optimal amount of color and tannins. As the alcohol content increases, the extraction of too many tannins is prevented by dropping the temperature to around 77°F, and reducing the volume of liquid pumped over the skins. During this maceration lasting 20-30 days, delastages are performed to improve the extraction of the tannins, and at the same time to oxygenate the yeast so it will ferment in ideal conditions to provide cleaner, more
elegant aromas. The alcoholic fermentation is followed immediately by the malolactic fermentation, which is encouraged by keeping the wine in temperature-controlled tanks at 68°F.